This area generally has tracts of fertile savannah grassland with a population of about 3,562,464 people who mainly practice agriculture. Many were previously displaced by armed conflict which has now led to competition over access to land and other natural resources following their resettlement.
In Acholi, there is a historic perception of neglect reinforced by demands for more equitable regional distribution of development and public services. Many land disputes have been registered between resettled and returning families but also intensified by oil exploration-related land acquisition, and gazettement of about 83,000 Hectares by the Uganda Wildlife Authority.
In Lango, there are a series of land acquisitions attributed to incursions of pastoralists from western Uganda with fears that non-Ugandans are accessing the communal land and resources to the detriment of the local people. The establishment of new districts is also faulted on the basis of many unresolved corruption allegations against the judiciary, police and district authorities.
There is a rise in conflicts over minerals, oil, forests, and the land where these resources are found which have increasingly taken a militarised and violent character. This is further worsened by apparent claims of under-exploitation, misallocation, and inequitable distribution of these resources as well as limited information to the public on findings of the geological studies undertaken.
The remedy to many of these concerns is to address acute poverty, high youth unemployment, socioeconomic and political exclusion, unaddressed legacies of war, and a widespread perception of marginalisation as well as disputes over land and natural resources, and the agricultural potential of the soil.